Anne Golons Angelique Banner

Donkey Riding

Were you ever in Québec
Stowing timber on the deck?
Where there's a king with a golden crown
Riding on a donkey.

Hey, ho! Away we go!
Donkey riding, donkey riding.
Hey, ho! Away we go!
Riding on a donkey.

Were you ever off the Horn
Where it's always fine and warm?
Seeing the lion and unicorn
Riding on a donkey.


Were you ever in Cardiff Bay?
Where the folks all shout, "Hurray!"
Here comes John with three years' pay
Riding on a donkey.


I remember this song from my school days at Sacred Heart Convent School - I loved belting it out as it has such a jaunty tune and of course, it comes to mind as I read the further adventures of Angélique in Québec. My thanks to for publishing the lyrics and confirming their history and present status as '"Donkey Riding" is a sea shanty that was originally sung by sailors from Canada, the US, England and Scotland. It was most likely sung while hauling and stowing cargo on a ship. Nowadays it's a children's song."'

New France Q&A

When was New France established?

24 July 1534

Where is it?

New France, French Nouvelle-France, (1534–1763), the French colonies of continental North America, initially embracing the shores of the St. Lawrence River, Newfoundland, and Acadia (Nova Scotia) but gradually expanding to include much of the Great Lakes region and parts of the trans-Appalachian West.

How did the French come to New France?

The first permanent European settlements in Canada were at Port Royal in 1605 and Québec City in 1608 as fur trading posts. The territories of New France were Canada, Acadia (later renamed Nova Scotia), and Louisiana. The inhabitants of Canada called themselves the Canadiens, and came mostly from northwestern France.

When did France become Canada?

In 1608, sponsored by Henry IV, Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons and Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Québec with 28 men, the second permanent French settlement in the colony of Canada. Colonization was slow and difficult. Many settlers died early because of harsh weather and diseases.

When did Canada become independent of France?

In 1867, the Province of Canada was joined with two other British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through Confederation, forming a self-governing entity named Canada. The new dominion expanded by incorporating other parts of British North America, finishing with Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949.

What is New France called now?

Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier. ... The other four colonies within New France were Hudson's Bay to the north, Acadia and Newfoundland to the east, and Louisiana far to the south.

(Q&A sourced from Google)


In the early days of the colony, the French transplanted the seigneurial system to the St. Lawrence Valley, which established a land ownership arrangement similar to the one existing in France at the time. Inherited from the Middle Ages, of which it retained the symbols, it enabled the King to secure the loyalty of new seigneurs, or lords, who in turn derived prestige and honour from their rank, while benefiting from the revenue produced by the land they were granted. The system was applied in New France without much planning. The King's representatives in Canada attributed territories of varying sizes as fief and seigneury to nobles and religious communities. In the 18th century, ecclesiastical seigneuries accounted for 25 percent of the seigneurial lands and were among the most populous fiefs. The nobility received quite a large proportion of the concessions, considering their small numbers. From the outset, the desire to make waterways accessible to as many people as possible determined the layout and shape of the land concessions. These were generally in the form of long rectangles fronting on the St. Lawrence River or another river. After the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the wealthier English and certain French-speaking bourgeois acquired several seigneuries belonging to descendants of the nobility; the Church continued to hold a large portion of the fiefs. The seigneurial system, although suppressed in France by the Revolution, survived in Canada until 1854.

The Inhabitants of Québec

The first seigneuries granted in the St. Lawrence Valley constitute the oldest nucleus of population. At the close of the 17th century, this region was densely populated compared to the rest of the colony. The layout of the farmland was determined by the desire to make waterways accessible to the greatest number of inhabitants. This parcelling of land into rectangular holdings fronting on the water resulted in a scattered settlement. The star-shaped villages of Charlesbourg and Bourg-Royal are rare examples in New France of grouped dwellings in a rural milieu.

The first seigneuries

When a person or community was granted a seigneury, certain obligations had to be met: rendering fealty and homage; ceding land to those who requested it; maintaining and having tenants maintain "hearth and home;" reserving the oak wood for the building of royal ships; and acknowledging the King of France had ownership of the subsoil. The awarding of a fief had to be confirmed by the King. Seigneurs could sell the land they were granted. The price of a seigneury was generally proportional to its level of development: the more numerous the censitaires, the more was its selling price. The purchaser of a seigneury was required to pay the droit de quint, a tax collected by the state equal to one-fifth of the sale price. A seigneur could cede part of a seigneury as an arrière-fief [sub-fief]. The holder of this land had the same rights and obligations as the seigneur; however, he owed fealty and homage not to the King, but to the seigneur who ceded him his arrière-fief.

Concession in Québec

The towns of Québec and Trois-Rivières were part of the domain of the King, who was the seigneur of these two urban centres. His representatives—the Governor General and the Intendant of New France—were in charge of assigning lots within these towns, in exchange for dues and certain obligations. Montréal was different, as its territory had been ceded as a seigneury to the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice.

Rights and Obligations

Abuses and irregularities in the contracts of concession between seigneurs and their censitaires, or tenants, were frequently denounced by the intendants. They proposed remedies: standardizing the rates of cens (a token payment to the seigneur) and rentes (a more substantial annual payment in kind or in money), and eliminating or modifying a number of rights, such as the corvée (unpaid manual labour), the right to remove wood from the habitants' land, the right to retake land into their own possession, and fishing rights.

The Financial Administrator

Each seigneury held, but did not necessarily exercise, the right to administer justice. In cases where it was exercised, the seigneur named officials: a judge (called a seneschal, provost, bailiff or seigneurial judge, according to circumstance), a financial administrator and a clerk who often also served as a notary and bailiff. They were paid by the seigneur.

Source : Library & Archives, Canada

Remember Nicholas Perrault?

An excellent overview of the period 1534-1763 from the beginnings to the end of colonisation by the French can be found here and is provided by - The period 1534 - 1763 (ending with the Treaty of Paris) covers the period (and beyond) that the Peyracs spent in the New World from the time Joffrey made it his base after his exile by the King and the eventual return of the Peyracs after Joffrey cedes his titles to Florimond who remains in France. The following is an extract which once again shows how Anne Golon interwove factual history with her fictional heroine :

"Between 1634 and August 1663, while the colony was governed by the Compagnie des Cent-Associés, about 262 women of marriageable age were recruited by individuals or by private religious groups who paid their travel expenses and provided for their lodging until they were married. But individual recruiters and private organizations had little success in enticing single women to emigrate to New France. In 1663, the King Louis XIV took over direct control of the government of New France, making it a Crown colony with Québec becoming a Royal Province. Royal governors and other officials replaced private commercial interests in governing Québec. At the same time, the French government initiated an organized system of recruiting and transporting marriageable women to the colony.

Between 1663 and 1673, 768 Filles du Roi or "King's Daughters" emigrated to New France under the sponsorship of the French government as part of the overall strategy of strengthening the colony until it could stand on its own without economic and military dependence on France. However, in 1672 France and England declared war on the Dutch republic, requiring a great commitment of financial resources by the French government. The French authorities decided that sponsored emigration was too costly and unnecessary since the colony's own population could provide a sufficient number of marriageable women from among its own daughters. When the program ended in 1673, the population of New France had risen to 6,700 people. [See Filles du Roi for ancestors.]

France greatly expanded its holdings in North America during the second half of the 17th century and early 18th century. Profits from the fur trade and from providing supplies and services to the French colonial régime and its military offered the opportunity for enterprising individuals to obtain wealth not otherwise available from the trades or farming. The quest for wealth and the search for greater individual freedom led to the establishment of a vast empire on the western frontiers of New France which by 1700 extended from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the mouth of the Mississippi, and west to the Great Lakes. [Our ancestor Nicolas Perrot played a role in this expansion as a fur trader, explorer and interpreter of Indian languages.]

With thanks to the Perrot family ancestors for the comprehensive website : www/

More about Nicholas Perrault in

Typical Attire Description

The People

Quilted bonnet : This head wear made of quilted fabric covers one's hair and is tied under the chin. This specific bonnet is worn under a coif (cornette) while others, such as the one­row or two row bonnets, are worn on their own.

Skirt : A long and ample wool skirt worn over an underskirt.

Shirt : A white cotton shirt that includes a collar and buttons at the wrist.

Breeches : These wool pants are buttoned at the crotch and fastened at the knees.

Tricorn hat : The rim of this triangular hat is folded towards the skullcap into three horns, hence the name.

The Bourgeois

Shirt : A thin shirt of white linen featuring ornamental lace work at the neckline.

Robe : A tight­fitting garment with narrow sleeves.

Stomacher : An embroidered or richly coated triangular piece of clothing that covers the lacing of a boned bodice.

This outfit sometimes includes a fan, a parasol and gloves.

Tricorn hat : Often decorated with feathers.

Jabot : A lace (or muslin) ornament that's stitched around the neck and lays down to the chest.

Cuffs : Removable wrist ornaments for a man's shirt.

Jerkin : An embroidered piece of clothing covered in braids and ribbons. It is adjusted around the waist and drops to the knees. It features basques, ornamental folded cuffs and either low pockets or high pockets, according to the fashion of the moment. It is split at the bottom in the back and on the sides.

The Nobles

Robe : Tailored from the best brocaded silks, it is richly decorated with golden and silver thread.

Brocade : Rich silk finely decorated with images woven of golden and silver thread in relief.

Engageantes : Removable funnel­shaped lace ornaments adorning the bottom of the sleeves of a woman's shirt.

Skirt : Ornamented with fringes and worn over multiple underskirts.

Fringes : Strips of hanging thread or fabric that decorate cloth.

Wig : Also called an in­folio. It is so large it forces its wearer to carry his hat under his arm.

Jabot : A lace (or muslin) ornament that's stitched around the neck and lays down to the chest.

Cuffs : Removable wrist ornaments for a man's shirt.

Jacket : Embroidered with golden and silver threads.

Jerkin : Worn over the rest of the clothes, it is decorated with golden braids and ribbons.

This outfit features gloves and a cane.*

Source :










Book 11 - Angélique à Québec

This page is a devoted to a compilation and intelligent speculation about the content of Book 11 based on what is available in the literary world but not yet available in English translation - 'Angélique in Québec'.

The Book

Quebec Book CoverAngélique à Québec - is the eleventh (main) title in the series (if you count Marquise of the Angels and Road to Versailles as two volumes and Countess and Temptation as single volumes each). Not only is it the eleventh title but it is also the first book in the third and final 'trilogy' which was then to have culminated with a one-off final volume (the fourteenth) which would have brought Angélique and Joffrey back to the continent and the glittering realm of the Sun King - in effect the Peyracs would have gone full circle if not necessarily circumventing the globe! The trilogy referred to follows on from the first six (or five) volumes which encompassed 'Angélique, Marquise of the Angels' through to 'Angélique in Love.' These books cover the life of Angélique from childhood to maturity, motherhood, widowhood, entrepreneur, survivor, rebel, outcast (more than once) and are set firm in France with the occasional foray to the Middle East and the Mediterranean borders. The setting moves to the New World, as it was then known, encompassing New England and Canada from the book entitled 'Countess Angélique' in the English translation but more sensibly called 'Angélique et le Nouveau Monde' (Angélique and the New World [not, 'in the New World']) in the original French. Two books follow 'Temptation' and 'Demon.' However, this is not a trilogy as the publishers went ahead with 'Ghosts' (another oblique translation, although 'Dziady' in Polish does mean 'Forefathers' although the word is also used for a male grandparent) which was never meant to be a book in itself. It was, in fact, supposed to be the introductory section to 'Québec', which in view of some of the storylines might have explained why particular points of action were written into the journey up the estuary ....... The original title was 'Angélique et le Complot des Ombres' - which translates into 'a conspiracy of shadows.' It makes eminent sense, all conspiracies are Fleur de Lysshadowy, secretive and unclear but not ghost-like! Having sailed up the estuary the next big step (literally) is for Angélique and Joffrey to disembark onto French Canadian sovereign soil. That, is where 'Ghosts' left the English-only reading fans and a satisfactory answer from the publishers was never received by those who queried the denouement of the series and who were desperate to know the end of the story. A fan base which still exists today! Others like myself have read the conclusion in either French (which they have taught themselves for the sole purpose of reading these books), or rely on 'unauthorised' translations which are available on a private basis although there is a Russian website which has published them all and which can be google-translated into any language. Others, like myself, have read the books in an alternative language, in my case Polish. I bought the entire set in Polish so that I could get to know the story from a Polish perspective - I found many variations in all the books - some new (and very exciting) embellishments to the story I knew so well from the English format, and some gross omissions which the Polish-only speaking readers will never catch up. By the time I came to the end of 'Ghosts' I was able to tackle comfortable the nuances of the last three books and pat myself on the back because having, in desperation read the French originals (this is what taught me to read all the Polish books, because I felt a certain hostility and antipathy towards the characters in French having got used to the English portrayals) I was able to confirm that I had understood around 90% of what I had read in French. It was strange though that in the case of Victoire I mostly remembered the time in the frozen lodge, as in Sultan I had remembered the desert trek, both of which actually took up less than about 20% of the whole. It's nice to re-read as the bits you forget are so refreshing and add so much to the storylines! How can the publishers say that there would be no further commissioning of translations due to 'lack of interest'! Yes, that is exactly what Heinemann's wrote to me in answer to my query way back in 1984, and one of these days I will find that letter and publish it on this website - that's a promise! And so, Books 11 (Québec), 12 (Espoir) and 13 (Victoire), if translated would have brought us to what was to have been Anne Golon's triumphant conclusion to this magnificent and memorable saga. The conclusion to the series (originally forecast as projected to come in two volumes) was eventually announced as an all-in-one by Anne Golon herself to be called 'Angélique et le Royaume de France' which would complete the story without killing off any of the major characters. I think her fans needed to know that, so embroiled have they been for years waiting for a conclusion whether they had reached Book 10 or Book 13. As we now know, Anne Golon died last (2017) year on Bastille Day, but right up to the end she had been working on concluding the series and rectifying unauthorised editing to her original volumes which can be found in the 'Intégrale' section of this website. Whether Book 14 is in a position to be published yet we don't know but we can hope .... we've already waited long enough!

Russian QuebecEstonian_Quebec

I found these examples of the book from Eastern Europe, the cover is Russian and the frontispiece from an Estonian version of 'Angélique in Québec' which captures the disembarkation of the Peyracs into the grand and corrupt city of Québec still firmly under the thumb of the Court of Versailles.

And so back to Book 11, the beginning of the end and once again a change of scenery and, apart from the principals, a big change of cast! Anne Golon, in a memorable interview after she moved the principals to the New World, had said that she realised she might alienate a large portion of her readership by moving the 'goalposts' but she was prepared to take the risk. It may be that by steering the characters back to French soil she might further alienate her readers by taking a retrograde step but the publishers weren't thinking about that judging by the preview of the book they were offering which is reproduced here :

Angélique in Québec - Volume XI - a romantic novel by Anne and Serge Golon

Angelique in Quebec Edition Trevise

The original and first edition Trévise cover

"On a misty morning in November in distant Canada, Québec's population watched with mounting apprehension the approach of a great but unrecognisable fleet of ships, none bearing any identifying flags, along the majestic river.

Friends of foes? Who were these new arrivals?

Aboard their personal ship Angélique and her husband Joffrey de Peyrac, also looked anxiously on as they drew ever closer to Québec's shores. Here, the King of France, who had banished them reigned supreme. It could only take one word, and his representatives would arrest, judge and condemn them in his name.

Joffrey de Peyrac, welcomed the challenge as becomes a nobleman. Beside him, magnificently attired, Angélique was preparing to rise to a different personal challenge. Would she be able to stand up to the hostility of the accusations made against her by a powerful Jesuit in Québec, who was broadcasting far and wide that she was a creature of the Demon, a rumour that had found credence locally amongst the superstitious, who believed the stories of fabled spirits and the intransigent religious fanatics. Would she be able to dissipate their doubts, charm them, fascinate them, conquer them? Could she, during the period of this difficult Canadian winter, in the close proximity of this closed society behind impenetrable prison-like walls become accepted, liked? Could she overcome the ingrained prejudices and hatred arising from the rhetoric; denounce and dispel the conspiracies disseminated by her relentless enemies in an attempt to bring her down? Could she prevent herself falling victim to the subtle dangers, which menaced her uncompromising love for her husband? Could she successfully defend herself against those alluringly sparkling rivals who were drawn to Count Peyrac's seductive charm which proved as irresistible to them as do flames to a moth? And finally, the situation created by their King, Louis XIV, who propelled by a desire for peace and justice, had pardoned the sorcerer burnt at the stake in the Place de Grève, and the Rebel of Poitou whose memory for the King of France would always be like a stab in the heart.

Angelique in Quebec publisher's synopsis

Edition Trévise, the publishers of the hardback versions announced the arrival of volume XI in the manner shown above - right down to the number of pages, font type, page size, paper weight, colour wave and type of voile covering.

And how, in Québec, that lost city, abandoned to the far reaches of the world across a dark ocean, covered in a cruel livery of cold and ice inhabited by the Iroquois savages who were sworn to destroy them, was she expected to survive this terrible winter. Was it to be until this prison of ice cracked and released them, the river thawed and regenerated to allow the Royal Ships from France to enter bringing with them the confirmation of their pardon from the King?

Add to the mix the historical characters such as Governor Frontenac, the Bishop of Québec, Monseigneur de Montmorency-Laval and hitherto unknown historical surprises and revelations and you get an unabridged and sumptuous view of New France during the reign of the Sun King.

Characters, strangely modern, who were, in effect the first pioneers and forefathers of French Americans, add to the rich fabric that has been the lifestyle of the marvellous Angélique born in the 17th century and retains her sparkle and beauty, her feminine personality, her charm, her audacity, her humanity which altogether gives her the face of the 'new modern pioneering' woman so familiar in today's world." Translation of the synopsis shown above by myself.

Inhabitants of Quebec

Inhabitants of Québec - image sourced from Library & Archives, Canada

Quebec Habitat

Monseigneur de Champlains' Habitation - image courtesy of Look - translation sourced from

A - Le Magasin - The Shop
B - Colombier - The Dovecote
C - Corps de logis où sont nos armes & pour loger les ouvriers - Arsenal, stables and lodgings for the workmen
D - Autre corps de logis pour les ouvriers - Main building for the workmen
E - Cadran - Sundial
F - Autre corps de logis où est la forge & artifans logés - The Forge & lodgings for the craftsmen/artisans
G - Galleries tout au tour des logements - A gallery surrounding the dwelling, making a circuit of the buildings
H - Logis du sieur de Champlain - Sieur de Champlains' lodging house
I - La porte d'habitation où il y a pont-levis - Entrance with drawbridge
L - Promenoir autour de l'habitation contenant 10 pieds de large jusque sur le bord du fossé - the Promenade around the dwelling ten feet in total o the edge of the moat
M - Fossé rout autour de l'habitation - moat encircling the dwelling
N - Plates-formes, en facon de tenailles pour mettre le canon - Platforms to support the cannons
O - Jardin du sieur de Champlain - Sieur de Champlains' garden
P - La cuisine - The Kitchen
Q - Place devant l'habitation fur le bort de la rivière - Open space on the riverbank
R - La grande rivière de fainét Lorens - The great St Lawrence River

5cent stamp issued in 1908 in Canada featuring the Habitat

Celebrating the tercentenary in 1908 of Monseigneur de Champlains' dwelling based in a sketch of his own - image courtesy & © of Canadian Postage

Quebec - Capital of New France

From the Winkworth Collection: A Treasure House of Canadiana in London 1 April 2015, London, South Kensington
Thomas Johnston, engraver (c.1708-1767) Québec, the capital of New-France, a Bishoprick and seat of the Sovereign Court - image courtesy of Christie's

The Administration

From Francis I to Henry IV, the feudal system of delegation allowed the King to save money by assigning to a private individual the responsibility—at his own expense—of governing, organizing and defending the conquered territories. This person, initially appointed as Lieutenant-General to the King, was after 1578 given the title of "viceroy", following the Spanish and Portuguese example. In exchange for trade privileges, private companies subsequently undertook to populate the colony and, in collaboration with the King's representatives, to administer it and enforce justice. In 1663, Louis XIV took back control of France's activities in North America by making New France a province in its own right, modelled on those of the home country, complete with a Governor, Intendant and Sovereign Council. The Governor and Intendant, who essentially controlled the colony, administered but did not govern: they received regular and detailed instructions from Versailles. There were two particular governors in Montréal and Trois-Rivières, and three law courts, which had the seigneurial courts under their jurisdiction, as well as a chief road officer. In principle, the Governor of Acadia was subordinate to the Governor of Québec; in fact, he was independent and answered directly to the home country. Over the years, various administrative offices and positions came into being: admiralty courts, a comptroller's office answerable to the Secretary of State for the Marine, an office of agents for the treasurers-general under the general control of finance, an administrator of the royal domain, a director of shipbuilding, an inspector of fortifications, and a captain of the port of Québec. Attached to these various offices were all the necessary support staff, including writers, registrars, clerks and quartermasters.

The Nobility

Like their counterparts in French society, the nobles of New France, though few in number, occupied a position of privilege. Favoured by the Crown, which granted them seigneuries, fur-trading licences and positions in the civil administration, they were for the most part military officers who played an important role in the various wars and negotiations with the Aboriginal peoples. Being noble did not, as in France, preclude commercial activity, and offices conferring nobility could never be bought. Nobility was granted for personal merit and by order of the King. To the 170 nobles who immigrated—Claude de Ramezay, for example—were added 11 Canadians. One of these was Robert Giffard, who received letters of nobility from the King of France "in the hope we cherish that being honoured to this degree and with a noble title in the country of New France that he will emulate the actions of the nobility and that he and his family will render us the services that those in this position owe to us." After the Treaty of Paris of 1763, many nobles left the colony, and those who remained had difficulty holding onto their rank and fortune.

The Population

The Royal Administration in New France applied its policy of getting to know the population of its kingdom by carrying out regular censuses. This type of enumeration was not conducted in France until the reign of Napoleon I. As a result, more is known about the number of inhabitants, family structures, trades and urban-rural distribution in the colony than in the other provinces of France. Low immigration during the 17th and 18th centuries meant that despite high birth rates, the population remained small: in 1760, there were some 85,000 inhabitants, as compared to 2 million in the English colonies. Canada accounted for some 75,000 people, concentrated mainly in the St. Lawrence Valley; 5,000 lived in the areas of Acadia still under French rule, which comprised Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Île Royale (Cape Breton Island), with Louisbourg as the main settlement; 900 inhabited the Pays d'en haut (the Great Lakes region) and the outpost at Detroit; and 4,000 inhabitants lived in Louisiana.

The Important Stages of Life

Regardless of their social status, the lives of the inhabitants of New France were recorded in the many official papers produced at key moments in their existence—birth, marriage and death, entry into a religious community, old age, the separation of a couple. These documents enable a reconstruction of the diverse destinies of individual men and women, and give a glimpse of their extended family and the ties they maintained with France. They also contain references to the objects used in their daily lives and to their financial situations. Visual images of the inhabitants of Canada and their lifestyles are, however, extremely rare.

The Regulation of Everyday Life

As the population grew, particularly in the cities and towns, and the colony's administration was gradually established, daily life in New France became increasingly regulated. There were also many strict religious interdicts issued by the Church of New France. This new zeal was brought on by the influence of the Catholic Reformation, and was much concerned with the moral discipline of the inhabitants. A remarkable number of rulings, ordinances, statutes and pastoral letters were issued on every aspect of life, particularly areas where the civil and religious authorities perceived a threat to public order and safety. The fact that some of these rulings had to be repeated many times is an indication of how difficult it was for the State to apply them, given the lack of methods of coercion and repression. 


Education was almost exclusively the responsibility of the Church. In the cities and towns (Montréal, Québec, Louisbourg and Trois-Rivières), instruction was provided by religious orders such as the Ursulines, the Charron Brothers, the Sulpicians and the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre-Dame. Primary schools were created to teach reading, writing and arithmetic, and by 1760, there were about 30 schools for boys and 15 schools for girls. The schoolteachers, who were sometimes itinerant, came under the control of the parish priests. There were also two trade schools, one in Saint-Joachim and one in Montréal, where young men could learn a profession or craft. New France's only institution of higher learning was the Jesuit College in Québec, where there was a chair in hydrography and professors who taught law, chemistry, physics, geometry and the art of navigation. Education was accessible to a minority of the population, and very few people were able to sign their name. Only a few members of the elite possessed a library. 

Medical Care

Although the colonial population suffered occasional epidemics of smallpox and typhus, they were less devastating than those that struck in France. A medical corps consisting of a small group of doctors, surgeons and apothecaries looked after the health of Canadians. The Intendants played a vital role in establishing an efficient medical system and introducing public health regulations. There was particular concern for the medical care offered to soldiers, for example, and also related to the introduction of midwives, whose status was strictly controlled by the authorities. Generally speaking, people were born and died in their own homes. The sick were cared for in hospitals that resembled those in Europe: there was one ward for men and another for women, and a chapel whose altar had to be visible to all patients. The Hôtel-Dieu and general hospitals in Québec, Montréal and Trois-Rivières were founded and run by female religious communities; their doors were open not only to the sick, but also to poor people, beggars and the elderly, who were expected to help with the work. Most of the plant and mineral products used in the colony's pharmacopoeia came from France, although a number of indigenous plants and some Aboriginal practices were integrated over the years.

Taverns and Inns

Many taverns, easily identifiable by their signs, were to be found in the cities and towns of New France including Québec, Montréal and Louisbourg. Such establishments could also be found in the country. For the working classes, they were a place to meet and exchange ideas, and the civil and religious authorities regarded them with suspicion, seeing them as locations of potential violence and debauchery. Inns, which were less common, provided accommodation and nourishment to the elite visiting the towns. Professional cooks, usually from France, worked for the colony's leading personages, or ran pastry shops, catering businesses and inns. The sale of alcoholic beverages, kept under close surveillance by the administration, was subject to numerous regulations designed to preserve moral standards among both Aboriginal peoples and the French population. The most popular drinks were wine, Bordeaux in particular, and spirits. Other types of wine were also imported to the colony from Champagne, Navarre, the Canary Islands and Frontignan, and locally brewed beer was consumed regularly by the inhabitants. Source : Library & Archives, Canada

After months of surviving their new conditions and no chance to dress up let's see what the fashion style of affluent and not-so-affluent Québec shows us!

Fashions in Quebec

Various Costumes, 1631-1750. By: Charles William Jeffery. Source: Library and Archives Canada via cdnhistorybits

Examples of fine materials

Broacaded Silk

Brocaded silk, France, 1675-1699. Museum no. 221-1895, photography by Alice Dolan

Silk Damask of the period

Silk damask, France or Italy, 1670-1699. Museum no. T.23c-1962, photography by Alice Dolan

Applied silk and bobbin lace

Hand coloured with applied silks and bobbin lace. Museum no. 1197-1875, given by Lady Wyatt, photography by Alice Dolan

Contemporary interpretation

Contemporary drawing of New France fashion - l to r groupings inhabitants, bourgeoisie and nobility

The People

The People Dress Code

The Bourgeois

TheBourgeois Dress Code

The Nobles

The Nobility Dress Code

Images and information (sidebar) sourced from

Quebec review

The full review (but still written with 'spoilers' in mind is available here

Back to Top

Page refreshed : 13th November 2018 (G)