Countess Angélique original English hardback design.

Countess Angelique hardback

Beads used in the making of Wampum

Whelk Column

A Whelk 'column'

Whelk Shells

A Whelk Shell

Quaho Shell

A Quahog Shell

Wampum History and Background thanks to NativeTech

Alternative Book Covers

Canadian Countess

This is the Pan version distributed for the English-speaking Canadian readers. I find it unusual on several counts, it is a paperback version in one tome. It provides a vastly superior cover to both English versions and retains, interestingly the original lettering (font) style of the earlier Pan editions in the UK - making it immediately recognisable to aficionados. (Had I seen this cover I should not have hesitated at W H Smiths!)

Countess part 1 alt

Countess P2 alt

UK Alternative 2nd Printing - still divided into two parts and still carrying the controversial sub-headings. The lettering (font) style has been changed and must have formed part of a re-print when 'Temptation' was published and the only other cover in this style that I have seen is 'In Love'

Five Nations Identification

This following images will show the differences in kastowa’s (men’s traditional head wear) between the Six Nations (Iroquois Confederacy). 

The large feathers are eagle feathers and the smaller feather are usually turkey feathers. 

The symbols associated with each tribe are shown in the main body of the articles.

Seneca Tribe

Seneca - People of the Great Hill / Keepers of the Western Door

Cayuga Tribe

Cayuga - People of the Swamp / Pipe Bearers

Onondaga Tribe

Onondaga - People of the Hill / Fire Keepers

Oneida Tribe

Oneida - People of the Standing Stone / Younger Brother

Mohawk Tribe

Mohawk - People of the Flint / Keepers of the Eastern Door

Tuscarora Tribe

Tuscarora - People of the Shirt

The League of the Iroquois was a French term for a confederacy of native peoples speaking related languages and living in contiguous territory during colonial times in what is now upstate New York. The confederates themselves called their league ‘‘the longhouse,’’ metaphorically invoking the typical communal dwelling of their culture. Dutch and English colonists called the league ‘‘the Five Nations,’’ for the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, this became the Six Nations as the league admitted the Tuscaroras.

More about the 5 Nations here

Wampum Collar

An excellent example of a wampum collar which has been woven on a bias.



The Five Nation and Great Lakes tribes were the first to play the ball game of Lacrosse, so called by their French fur trader counterparts because of the netted canes they used to scoop up the hide ball used in the game.

The Arrival of the Europeans:
17th Century Wars

Abenaki Wars, 1675-1678 and 1687-1697

While the Iroquois Wars were shaping the development of the French colony in the St. Lawrence Valley and the Great Lakes region, another war was being waged between the Mi’kmaq and the Abenaki in Acadia. Champlain built the first French settlement in the Maritimes in 1604 on Île Sainte-Croix. The following year, it was moved to Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal), which became the centre of the Acadian colony. At the time, the Mi’kmaq, an Algonquian nation that had hostile relations with the Abenaki who lived in neighbouring Maine and Massachusetts, inhabited the region. By 1604, the French had established trading relations with the Mi’kmaq, who made use of French weaponry such as metal arrowheads, swords and even firearms to fight the Abenaki.

In the 1620s, however, the geopolitical situation in Acadia changed quickly. After the 1624 treaty between the Iroquois and the nations of the St. Lawrence Valley, the Mi’kmaq and the Abenaki became the targets of Iroquois raids. This development helped reduce tensions between the Mi’kmaq and the Abenaki, and it induced the Abenaki to open negotiations with the French for a commercial and military alliance. The first overture was made in 1629, when an Abenaki delegate travelled to Quebec City to seek Champlain’s aid against the Iroquois and propose a close friendship between their nations. Since Champlain was unable to provide the Abenaki with concrete assistance at that time, nothing came of the proposed alliance until 1651, when the Jesuit Gabriel Druillette visited the Abenaki to enlist them into a common front against the Iroquois.

In 1654, Acadia fell to the British. The French did not recover the territory until 1670, and they established a new post in Abenaki territory at the mouth of the Penobscot River (now Castine, Maine). In the following years, the Jesuits and the Récollets founded a number of missions among the Abenaki and the Mi’kmaq, while a number of the small and largely male population of French settlers married Aboriginal women. The Franco-Abenaki alliance, which had been shaky up to that point, quickly became firmer.

The Baron de Saint-Castin exemplified the close alliance that developed between the French and the Abenaki during this period. A young soldier who came to Canada with the Carignan-Salières Regiment, Jean-Vincent d’Abadie de Saint-Castin became the lover of a Aboriginal woman named Pidianske, who was the daughter of Madockawando, an important Abenaki chief of the Penobscot nation. Initially, relations between Saint-Castin and the Abenaki were of a purely commercial nature. But after a few years, the Baron decided to settle among the Abenaki, where he acquired considerable political power.

In 1675, King Philip’s War (in reference to the English name of Metacom, the Wampanoeg chief against whom the Plymouth Puritans initiated hostilities) broke out between the British colonies of New England and most of the Algonquin nations on the east coast of North America, including the Abenaki and the Mi’kmaq. The cause of the war was the expansion of the British colonies into Aboriginal lands. It ended with the destruction of most of the Aboriginal nations in Massachusetts and Connecticut, and the exodus of thousands of Abenaki. Some took refuge at Pentagoët with Saint-Castin and his allies, while others travelled to the St. Lawrence Valley and joined members of their community who had withdrawn to the Jesuit mission in Sillery in the 1660s, after the Iroquois wars. The Jesuits recorded the arrival of a large number of refugees:

"When the war that the Abenaki had with the English began, many of them decided to withdraw to the land inhabited by the French …. Two nations principally, namely those called the Sokoki and the Abenaki, carried out this plan and set out at the beginning of summer in the year 1675. The Sokoki headed for Trois-Rivières, where they settled, and the Abenaki … withdrew to this place called Sillery."

Following King Philip’s War, the British began encroaching on Abenaki and Mi’kmaq land. Settlers from New England started fishing off the Acadian coast, seized Aboriginal hunting grounds, and built forts there for defence. In 1687, another war – often called King William’s War – resumed between the British and Aboriginal groups. During this conflict, the French supplied the Abenaki and the Mi’kmaq with weapons to fight the British, supported them in some battles, and continued to take in refugees fleeing the war. The population of Sillery grew so rapidly that the mission soon became overcrowded. One Abenaki group, primarily from Maine, settled at Sault de la Chaudière near Quebec City, and then moved again to the mouth of the St. François River (Odanak) in 1700. Abenaki from Vermont (known as the Sokoki) chose to relocate their village to Bécancour (Wolinak) on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. Like the Iroquois missions, these Abenaki villages served French policy. Father Charlevoix reported that ‘the Governor General’s intention, in creating this settlement, was to fashion a barrier against the Iroquois, in case those Savages should be persuaded by the English to resume the war.’ They also served Abenaki interests, providing security from their enemies to the south while allowing Abenaki warriors to range freely against English settlers.

In Acadia, Aboriginal hostility to the British persisted until the end of the French Regime in 1760 and was at the core of the Franco-Aboriginal alliance that lasted until that date. In 1697, when the British were seeking peace with the Abenaki, the latter clearly expressed their opposition to British colonial expansion and their attachment to the French. The Abenaki chief demanded, as a condition for peace,

"1. That he [the British Governor] begin by withdrawing the English from their land forever.

2. That they [the Abenaki] did not see on what grounds he claimed to be their master, that neither he nor any of his predecessors had ever been, that they had given themselves to the King of France willingly and without being forced to do so, and they would never take orders from anyone other than him and his generals.

3. That they would never allow the English to have habitations on their lands and they had granted this permission to the French alone.

Extract Source : National Defence & Canadian Forces



Countess Angélique

Angelica Design in GreenThe original and authentic title for this book is 'Angélique et le Noveau Monde' which in translation reads 'Angélique and the New World' - not 'Angélique in the New World'. The hardback version of the English translation shows a louche woman with a self-satisfied smirk, inappropriately covered in and glittering with precious jewels and fine materials only just this side of decently covering her decolletage. Could this beNouveau Monde cover the same woman who has just stepped off a ship that has undergone an arduous ocean crossing where food had become scarce; fresh fruit, vegetables and milk no longer available in the latter parts of the voyage and who, with a mother's instinct to sustain her starving child, fed her her own rations ... A woman who has been newly presented to the passengers and crew as the wife of the Count of Toulouse and dressed accordingly to acknowledge her rank and to establish their personal relationship in this instant of arriving in the New World. Dressed in beautiful clothing as an antithesis to the servants clothing they were all accustomed to and which would have been alien to them as well as to her in this situation ... A woman who was about to become a pioneer amongst them and join their fight for survival against the alien conditions confronting them, helping to build a community and the housing they would share, becoming a healer, shredding her hands and nails preparing herbs and roots .... just who is this woman on the cover of the English hardback versions supposed to be?

I believe that there could be several reasons for this, chiefly that the artist had been given a title and never looked beyond the title page. I much prefer the French version shown above and the eventual English paperback versions which were published twice and on both cover printings the images represented the pioneering spirit of the storyline (and some more decolletage of course!).

Although I started reading these books several years after they were first published in the English language, their popularity was such that they always seemed to be on the bookshelves in the shops and in the libraries. The versions of the original 6 books that I owned were Pan (paperback) reprints - in this case the 9th dated 1966. I would have been reading avidly at this time and it was a long wait until 1969 when the Pan version of 'Countess' first appeared in my favourite bookshops.

The delay in purchases on my part were two or three fold - I could not afford hardbacks at the time and would not have searched for them at W H Smith (I stopped going to Sisson and Parkers once the Victoria Centre had opened) which was a paperback realm. I was too busy to go to the library and anyway, to all intents and purposes, there was little or no indication in the English translation of 'Angélique in Love' that the series was likely to continue - after all, everything had been rounded off so nicely - all the major characters were safe and reunited, we had heard 'Rescator's Story' on the long voyage over the sea, peace had broken out amongst the pirates and the Huguenots and a 'Brave New World' with all its riches and opportunities awaited everyone.

Map of Canada dated 1653

1653 Cartographer's map of 'Le Canada' at around the time of the Peyracs arrival in the New World - image sourced from :

Groundplan of New Amsterdam dated 1660

As the main port of New Amsterdam (from 1660)/New York/Manhattan Island grew and flourished and changed hands it is likely to have been very similar to the map above by the time the Peyracs landed and awaited the ships bringing news, letters (personal and of patent) and other circulars and literature by ship from the old world to the new. - Image sourced from via newamsterdamhistorycenter

Street names New Amsterdam 1660

An interesting exercise comparing the original street names with their English equivalent of the time and as currently known and instantly recognisable. - Image sourced from

Countess Part 1So, it was a bit of a surprise when one day I spotted a book called 'Countess Angélique' in an orange cover at Smiths - not in a prominent place, just on one of those revolving towers. I looked at the lettering first of all (I am very 'tactile' visually if you see what I mean) - it wasn't the same as the previous six books with which I was so familiar (and if the truth be told a little in love with the artists impression of the eponymous heroine). Then I looked at the cover with a certain degree of distaste as I really do not like the colour orange and noticed that it was Part 1 of the book. I looked at the image of the woman on the front - there was a passing resemblance to the image on the front cover of 'Angélique in Revolt'. I had a look at the authors name and that matched and then I read the back cover which indicated that this was, indeed a sequel to 'Angélique in Love'. Luckily Part 2 in a purple cover was also available Countess Part 2so with a mounting sense of excitement I bought both books and couldn't wait to tell my sister about them - after all she had introduced me to Angélique in the first place. (I do just need to stress here that the sub-heading titles of the books leave much to be desired and will have been foisted on the author's original by either the translator or publisher or both! Book one, in particular, has caused a lot of offence in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.)

By the way, my sister then confessed that she had seen the book at the library but had dismissed it thinking it was just a coincidence in the title. (One of these days I shall exact revenge on her for keeping me from this sequel - only kidding!)

In fact, I think that if I had seen the hardcover I would have dismissed it as well - the woman in that picture bedecked in jewels (as befitting a Countess) and sumptuous 'stuffs' (I love that antiquated word for materials) was smirking in the most self-satisfied way. What were the publishers thinking of? I'm guessing that, having committed to continue 'commissioning translations' and publishing the series they may have felt that if they did not portray 'Angélique' in a sultry and sumptuous way readers might be turned off by seeing her dressed in fustian and skins (I resist saying 'furs' as these were popular in the courts of Europe and were a great part of the trade between the Old and New Worlds but the pioneers will have used the skins as a necessity not as a fashion accessory). Could the publishers have been right? I admit that this is exactly what happened to me when I first started reading the book - I hated the New World experience - this couldn't be happening - when would we get back to the comfort of old Europe - this couldn't last surely? It was too much like our Girl Guide camping holidays - I never want to smell damp grass inside a tent ever again!

I have, since that time, revised my opinions of this second 'tranche' of books, but it took persistent re-reading of the whole series each time a new book came out to start appreciating the magic and the sheer 'cheek' of the authors to move the characters (and by extension us, the readers) to a completely different location and circumstances whilst retaining the same 'stock' characters.

Going back to my original debate then, did the publishers take fright at the content and commission the cover to reel readers in expecting a return to Court? Did the artist*, perhaps have no concept of the content and just thought 'French, Versailles and of course the wholly inappropriate "erotica" tag' applied to the books to produce this cover? Or was it something deliberately created to mislead the public? I don't know the answers to this - but it is strange that the sequel to a hugely popular series was treated with a degree of contempt in such a low key advertising campaign. * In 2019 with the help of Tim at Tikit I discovered that the illustrator of these covers was Hans Helweg - if you take a look at his working drawings you will appreciate that he did put a lot into them, the publishers once more kiboshed any hopes of an enticing cover ......

Appropriate clothing for the winters of 17th century New World

Even with redeeming the book covers intentions (see above), they are still a far cry from the type of clothing those moving from the Old World to the New would have been prepared for. Image sourced from:

Angelica Design in Green

17th Century engraving

iPlayer Harlots, Housewives and Heroines

Recently the BBC screened a three-part series provocatively entitled “Harlots, Housewives and Heroines – A 17th Century History for Girls.” Needless to say it leaned heavily towards the English perspective with some reference to France (Charles II having returned from exile there) but generally, life in Europe would have been reflected in a similar manner. I was particularly struck by the illustration shown here (origins unknown) which show the woman as the manager of the household which included having to organise everything including ministering to the sick making her own medicines from herbs. The programme even went so far as to reproduce what had been made remarking on the fact that many of the herbs used in the 17th century were still being used today for the same symptoms and ailments. I was particularly drawn to this image imagining Angélique creating her potions in the fortress at Wapassou.

Angelica Design in Green

In some of the books, I sometimes get overwhelmed by one aspect within it which clouds the other really interesting areas of the book because that particular aspect sits at the forefront of my mind and makes me slide too quickly over some of the other, often, complex situations. In 'Angélique and the Sultan' despite it taking up less than a third of the book, the overriding aspect was the flight across the desert - in 'Countess Angélique' it is the question of Wampum and its significance to the plot, the storyline and its impact on the cultural history of the North American lifestyle.

I will happily admit to wondering what the fuss about Wampum was all about and then I researched it for my own peace of mind. For me, now, Wampum is the best thing since sliced bread and that is why it will form the remainder of this section (follow link) to compliment the storyline which Anne Golon brought to us in 'Angélique and the New World.'

Huron Territory

Map of Huron Country 1631–51

Map of Huron Country 1631–51

This important manuscript map on vellum depicts part of present-day Ontario, Canada, extending from Georgian Bay in the north (Partie du Grand Lac des Hurons) to Lake Ontario in the south, and from Lake Huron in the west to Lake Simcoe in the east (Lac Oventarenk). The map originally was dated 1631, but the date later was changed to 1651. Canadian scholar Conrad E. Heidenreich concluded that the main part of the map probably was drawn between 1639 and 1648, with slight revisions made after 1650, which most likely explains the change from 1631 to 1651. Heidenreich also surmised that the map, which is unsigned, was drawn by Saint Jean de Brébeuf (1593–1649). The map evidently was made to illustrate the location of Indian tribes and Jesuit missions, particularly in the area between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay. Brébeuf was born in Normandy, France, and joined the Jesuit order in 1617. In 1626 he established the first mission among the Huron Indians. He was captured by the Iroquois, enemies of the Hurons, then tortured and burned to death on March 16, 1649. He was canonized in 1930. Source: World Digital Library


In addition to the appreciation of Wampum, must first come an appreciation of the Iroquois 5-Nation tribes which will feature prominently throughout the New World adventure that spans the book until the conclusion of 'La Victoire d'Angélique.' Here is a simplified map of their territories:

The Iroquois 5-Nations Map

5 and 6 Nations

The people of the Five (Six) Nations, also known by the French term, Iroquois Confederacy, call themselves the Hau de no sau nee (ho dee noe sho nee) meaning People Building a Long House. Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. The sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated into Iroquois country in the early eighteenth century. Together these peoples comprise the oldest living participatory democracy on earth. Their story, and governance truly based on the consent of the governed, contains a great deal of life-promoting intelligence for those of us not familiar with this area of American history. The original United States representative democracy, fashioned by such central authors as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, drew much inspiration from this confederacy of nations. In our present day, we can benefit immensely, in our quest to establish anew a government truly dedicated to all life's liberty and happiness much as has been practiced by the Six Nations for over 800 hundred years.

At the end of this feature I will reproduce the design history of the Native American $1 coin which refers to the Great Tree of Peace, the Hiawatha Belt which is made of Wampum and the French and English settlers - all of which feature in the Angélique books set in the New World.

Angelica Design in Green

French-Iroquois Treaty of 1667

The Five Nations Confederacy would not remain in command on the north shore of Lake Ontario forever (or even all that long).

In the later 1660s the French began taking their own aggressive actions to restrain, among other things, the flow of furs from the north-shore Iroquois trading villages to the new English (and surviving old Dutch) traders and merchants at Albany and New York – as opposed to the French themselves at Quebec City and Montreal.

The first French step in what quickly enough unfolded as a quite systematic strategy was to strike a blow against the Five Nations’ military might (already weakened by the ongoing struggle with the Susquehannocks to the south, at the edge of the rising English Mid-Atlantic colonies). In 1665 French imperial officials sent a military force known as the Carignan-Salieres regiment off into the wilderness of “Canada or New France.”

Then, as the historical geographer Victor Konrad has explained: “In the spring of 1666, the Viceroy and the Governor of Canada, with 28 companies of foot and all the militia of the colony, marched into the country of the Mohawks” [the most easterly of the Five Nations Iroquois].

The vaunted military might of the King Louis XIV had some trouble adjusting to the rugged lakes and forest of northeastern North America. As the leaves returned to the trees in the spring of 1666, Konrad goes on: “The Mohawks retired into the woods and all the French were able to do was burn some villages and murder some old Sachems.”

Yet, in the parallel report of Bruce Trigger, this was enough to secure a French-Iroquois “treaty embracing the whole confederacy” in 1667, “after the Carignan-Salieres Regiment had burned the Mohawk villages and food supply.” (Though the exact status of the especially fierce Mohawks themselves remained somewhat ambiguous in the written version of the treaty that survives in the National Archives of Canada, “for the present time.”)

Whatever else, the French had made it very clear that (unlike the Huron and the Neutral) they would not be dispersing from the region north of the Great Lakes, in any then foreseeable future.

Even under the French-Iroquois treaty of 1667, the new Iroquois villages remained on the north shore of Lake Ontario. The Iroquois would still be in command there for a while yet. The next step in the ongoing French plot, however, was to send Christian missionaries to the villages, to aid the resident heathen in their spiritual lives (as the Huron had been aided in the darker past).

Angelica Design in Green

5 Nations Honoured by US Mint

Dollar Coin2010 Native American $1 Coin

The theme for the 2010 Native American $1 Coin is "Government—The Great Tree of Peace."   Its reverse design features an image of the Hiawatha Belt with 5 arrows bound together, along with the inscriptions UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, $1, HAUDENOSAUNEE and GREAT LAW OF PEACE.

Great Tree of Peace (early 1400s)

(Noted in P.L. 110-82 as "Iroquois Confederacy")

The Haudenosaunee Confederation, also known as the Iroquois Confederacy of upstate New York, was remarkable for being founded by 2 historic figures, the Peacemaker and his Onondaga spokesman, Hiawatha, who spent years preaching the need for a league.   The Peacemaker sealed the treaty by symbolically burying weapons at the foot of a Great White Pine, or Great Tree of Peace, whose 5-needle clusters stood for the original 5 nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca.

The Hiawatha Belt is a visual record of the creation of the Haudenosaunee dating back to the early 1400s, with 5 symbols representing the 5 original Nations.   The Haudenosaunee symbol, the Great White Pine, is the central figure on the belt, also representing the Onondaga Nation. The four square symbols on the belt represent the Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga and Seneca nations.   The bundle of 5 arrows symbolizes strength in unity for the Iroquois Confederacy.

Northern European settlers from France, England and the Netherlands interacted with the Haudenosaunee as a separate diplomatic power.   The success of the confederation showed the colonists that the Greek confederacies they had read about in the histories of Polybius were a viable political alternative to monarchy.   The symbolism of the Great Tree of Peace and eagle sitting on its top were adopted as national icons during the American Revolution.

Background: Government

Some early narratives by explorers and missionaries introduced Europe to Native American societies which practiced equality and democratic self-government.   These narratives quickly found their way into classics of European thought, including Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" and Montaigne's "Essays."   John Locke cited the Huron election of its chiefs in his refutation of the Divine Right of Kings.

When the newly independent Americans devised a continental government, they may have seen in these native societies living examples of the successful confederacies that they admired in the ancient Greek histories.   Many tribal groups established confederations often based on linguistic affinity.   One of the most famous and powerful of these Native leagues was the Iroquois Confederacy, known to its members as the Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) or the Six Nations.

Angelica Design in Green

The Importance of the Wampum Belt in Negotiations / Trade / Treaties

The importance placed on negotiations with the Native American Indians was even recorded in an engraving depicting a Grand Sachem and a Tribal Council. The same gravity would be accorded to negotiations between the tribes and the French and English setters.

Grand Sachem

Detail of the Wampum

A Grand Sachem at the centre of a crescent-moon maweomi with a Covenant Chain wampum belt in the foreground, a symbolic element that bound the Grand Council together.
From Moeurs des Sauveges Ameriquains, Joseph Francois Lafitau, 1724 - (Courtesy of the Quinnipiac Tribal Council)

Angelica Design in Green

As the Huron tribe features so prominently from this point on it is interesting to note that there is in existence a Huron Wampum Belt commemorating the 1683 agreement between the Hurons and the Jesuits!

Jesuit and Huron

Huron Jesuit belt

The Huron Wampum Belt commemorates the 1683 agreement between the Hurons and Jesuit missionaries for the construction of the first wooden church on Huron Lands. Adapted from The Native Americans. Edited by B. & I. Ballantine. 1993

Huron Warrior and Wampum Belt

Nicholas Vincent Isawahoni, a Huron Chief, holding a wampum belt, 1825
Even if colonial or subsequent Dominion governments were unwilling or unable to do so, Aboriginal groups steadfastly retained the knowledge of their unique relationship with the Crown during peace and war throughout the 19th century into the 20th century and beyond. Library and Archives Canada (C-38948) - Image and strapline information sourced from -

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